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The integrals (rukns) of prayer are seventeen (17) PDF Print Email
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Saturday, 11 July 2015 05:23

(The integrals (rukns) of prayer are seventeen (17):)

(1.) The first of which is (To have the intention in the heart of performing the prayer) i.e. to perform the act of prayer. If he did not utter the intention with his tongue/pass a phrase on his tongue this does not harm him, as long as he established the intention in his heart. The intention must be done while saying/congruent with the opening “Allahu akbar”, takbir, (and to specify) within the intention (the prayer which is performed for a particular reason) like the Eclipse prayer, or the prayer done in times of drought, (or time;) like the mid-afternoon prayer (^Asr) or the Duha prayer. (and) it is a must to intend (of its obligation when obligatory,) so one’s intention would be “I intend to prayer the obligatory prayer of ^Asr,” or the like, (2.) The second integral is for the person praying is (To say ‘Allahu akbar’) and it is a condition to not elongate the hamza in the beginning of the name of Allah and not to elongate the letter ba, and one must not add a waw before the name of Allah or between the name of Allah and the word “Akbar”, and one must not replace the hamza in the word “Akbar” with a waw. If any of these conditions are not met, the individual’s prayer was not instituted.

(3.) The third integral is (To stand (qiyam) for the obligatory prayer,) even if it was a vowed prayer or the Funeral prayer, (when able;) for the one who is able to stand i.e. the one who is able to stand must stand. The conditions of standing include relying on one’s own two feet and erecting the vertebras of his back. As for the one who is not able to stand, he prays while sitting; if he was unable to sit, then he prays while laying on his side; if unable, then he prays while laying on his back.

 

(4.) The fourth integral is (To recite the) Surah of  the (Fatihah,) for the one who is praying alone, the one praying as an imam, and the one who is following an imam, it is a condition to recite all the Surah’s verses, including (the basmalah بِسْـــمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيْــمِ ,) for it is the first verse of Surat alFatihah; (and) one must pronounce (doubling the letters that must be doubled,) the doubled letters appear in fourteen places in Surat alFatiha. It is also a condition to observe the Surah’s order, i.e. to recite it (in order) i.e. the order which is known, (and) to observe its (succession without lengthy interruption,) i.e. to recite it without separating between its verses longer than the normal breathing time; (and) one must observe (articulating its letters properly,) and  the most important letters to take care in pronouncing is the ص sad, because many people do not pronounce it from its proper exit, instead they pronounce it between aس  seen and a ص sad, without their uttering being either a pure س seen or a pure ص sad; (and avoiding the error) i.e. the mistake in reciting (which breaches the meaning,) i.e. which changes or nullifies the meaning; an example of a mistake which changes the meaning is (such as saying أُنعمتُ (an^amtu)) or “an^amti” (instead of أُنعمتَ (an^amta).) As for the mistake which nullifies the meaning it is like saying al-lazeena with a ز zay instead of al-ladheena with a ذْ dhaal, for there is no meaning in saying al-lazeena. (It is prohibited to commit an error which does not breach the meaning) like saying ni^budu instead of na^budu, (but does not invalidate the prayer ;)

(5.) The fifth integral is (To bow- ruku^) that is done when the one who is praying bends without bending his knees excessively (inkhinas[1]), (until one’s palms could reach) come to, (one’s knees ;) i.e. one must bow in a way that his palms reach his knees if he were to place them on his knees provided one has an average body. Hence, it does not suffice for the fingers alone to reach the knees.

(6.) The sixth integral is (To remain motionless in) the integral of (ruku^ for the duration of saying ‘subhana Allah’ (tuma’ninah);) Tama’ninah is the stillness and immobility of every bone in its place all at one time for the duration of saying “subhana Allah”.

(7.) The seventh integral is (To straighten up after ruku^ (i^tidal);) i^tidal is for the bowing person to return to the state he was on before bowing. Hence if he was standing before bowing (ruku^) his i^tidal would be to return to the standing position after ruku^, and the like.

 

(8.) The eighth integral is (To remain motionless in i^tidal for the duration of saying ‘subhana Allah’;)

(9.) The ninth integral is (To prostrate (perform sujud) twice) in each rak^ah, (by putting all or part of one’s uncovered forehead) the forehead is what is between the two temples, (on one’s praying ground,) i.e. placing the uncovered forehead on the place of one’s prostration, (allowing its weight down) such that if there was cotton underneath one’s forehead it would be pressed and the weight of the head would be felt on one’s hand, assuming it was underneath the cotton; while being (in a state of tankees, i.e.) by (making his bottom parts higher than his upper parts and) it is a condition to (place part) even if it was a small part, (of one’s knees, the inside of one’s hands, and the bottom of one’s toes on the ground,) even if they were covered; A non-Shafi^iyy scholar) who was among the Hanbaliyys (said it is not a condition to have tankees in prostration (sujud), hence, if one prostrates in a way (even if ones head was higher in prostration (sujud) than ones buttocks that the prayer is valid)

(10.) The tenth integral is (To have tuma’ninah in prostration (sujud);)

(11.) The eleventh integral is (To sit between the two prostrations;)

(12.) The twelfth integral is (To have tuma’ninah in this sitting;)

(13.) The thirteenth integral is (To sit for saying the last tashahud, the Salat ^alan-Nabiyy,) sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, (and the closing salam;)

(14.) The fourteenth integral is (To say last tashahud; by saying:

اَلتَّحِيَّاتُ الْمُبَارَكَاتُ الصَّلَوَاتُ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلّهِ ط

اَلسَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ ط

اَلسَّلامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللّهِ الصَّالِحِيْنَ .

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلهَ إِلا اللّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا َرَسُوْلُ اللّه ط

And this is the more complete version of the tashahud. (Or one may say the minimum version:

اَلتَّحِيَّاتُ لِلّهِ ط

اَلسَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ وَرَحْمَةُ اللّهِ وَبَرَكَاتُهُ ط

اَلسَّلامُ عَلَيْنَا وَعَلَى عِبَادِ اللّهِ الصَّالِحِيْنَ .

أَشْهَدُ أَنْ لا إِلهَ إِلا اللّهُ وَأَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا َرَسُوْلُ اللّه ط

Which means: Allah owns all the blessed salutations. O Prophet of Allah, may the protection of Allah and His mercy and blessing be upon you. May safety and peace upon us and upon the righteous slaves of Allah. I know, believe, and declare that no one is God but Allah, and I know believe and declare that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.

(15.) The fifteenth integral is (To say the Salah ^alan-Nabiyy, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. The minimum) of the Salat ^alan-Nabiyy, ^alayhis salatu was-salam, (is: اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلَى مُحَمَّد) “Allahumma Sali ^ala Muhammad” or the like, like “Sallallahu ^ala Muhammad”.

(16.) The sixteenth integral is (To say the) first (closing salam. The minimum is: السلام ُ عَليكُم.) “As-salamu ^alaykum”. It is condition/it is a must for one to utter the ال “al” in the beginning of the salam, to utter the meem of ^alaykum, and to have succession between the two words.

(17.) The seventeenth integral is (To observe the order.) of the integrals of the prayer as they were mentioned.

For the one who is praying (To intentionally perform the integrals of prayer out of order) i.e. to leave the order by performing a verbal integral, namely the closing salam, or any action integral, out of place (invalidates the prayer.) due to one’s jesting with the integrals. (An example is if one intentionally prostrated before one’s ruku^.)

(If one forgets (to perform) an integral,) by leaving out the order of the integrals, (one must return to perform it) i.e. to perform the integral he left out and continue his prayer from there, (unless one has reached) unless the one who forgot the integral in the prayer did not remember the forgotten integral except after reaching (the same integral) i.e. the integral like the left-out one, (or) he did not remember leaving out the integral until reaching (what is after it) i.e. he did not remember until after reaching what is like the forgotten integral (in the next or subsequent rak^ah. In such a case, what was performed in-between is canceled.) i.e. one’s prayer is continued from the point of the forgotten integral by performing what is like that left-out integral in the next rak^ah, and all which is in-between, from the point an integral was left out to the point of reaching the integral like it in the subsequent rak^ah, is canceled. (An example is if one did not remember leaving out ruku^ except after having performed the ruku^ or prostration of the subsequent rak^ah.) The rak^ah containing the missing ruku^ is completed by the ruku^ performed in the subsequent rak^ah. (In such a case what is between the missing ruku^ and the performed ruku^ is canceled, and what is after this performed ruku^ is the continuation of the rak^ah.)



[1] i.e. excessive bending of the knees.