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Examples of the first category of apostasy, i.e., the apostate beliefs, are: PDF Print Email
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Wednesday, 08 July 2015 01:46

Examples of the first category of apostasy, i.e., the apostate beliefs, are:

  • Having the doubt in) the existence of (Allah), His Oneness, or His non-resemblance to the creation.  Having doubt in the truthfulness of (His Messenger), Muhammad, sallallahu ^alayhi wa salam, or his Prophethood, such as doubting whether or not Muhammad was the Messenger of Allah.  Having doubt whether or not (the Qur’an) was revealed from Allah, or if it is from Prophet Muhammad himself.  Having doubt whether or not (the Day of Judgment) will occur.  Having doubt about the existence of (Paradise, Hell, Reward) or (Punishment) in the Hereafter; (or having the doubt in similar matters upon which there has been scholarly consensus “ijma^”) among the Muslims.
  • (Believing the world is eternal by) its (kind and) its (elements), i.e., its members or parts, as some philosophers said (or by) its (kind only) as other philosophers said.  Ahmad Ibn Taymiyah[1] followed the second group of philosophers in their misguidance.
  • (Renouncing one) or more (of the) thirteen (attributes of Allah, ta^ala, which are known by consensus that He is attributed with, such as Him knowing about everything;) or being attributed with Power, Hearing, Sight, Life, and Will.[2]
  • (Ascribing to Allah what does not befit Him, by consensus, such as being a body), that is, believing that Allah is a body with a length, width, and depth.  This also includes attributing weakness, ignorance, and death to Allah, because that entails belying the Religion.
  • (Legitimating what is by consensus and commonly known among the Muslims), i.e., scholars and laymen alike, (to be unlawful “haram” and which he is aware of such as adultery and fornication “zina”, sodomy “liwat”, killing of a Muslim “qatl”) unjustly, (stealing “sariqah”, and taking money of others unjustly “ghasb.”) However, if a new Muslim was unaware of the prohibition of such matters and because of that said they were permissible, he does not blaspheme.
  • (Deeming unlawful “haram” what is by consensus and commonly known among the Muslims to be lawful “halal”), while knowing that it is lawful, (such as selling and marriage). Whoever deems such matters forbidden blasphemes.
  • (Renouncing the obligation of the matters which are by consensus and commonly known among the Muslims to be obligatory such as the five Obligatory Prayers or one of their prostrations) or the obligation of “Zakah,” Fasting “Sawm”) in Ramadan, (Pilgrimage “Hajj”, and Ablution “Wudu”). Whoever believes any of these matters are not obligatory blasphemes.
  • (Deeming obligatory the matters which are by consensus and commonly known among the Muslims not to be obligatory;) such as deeming obligatory the addition of one rak^ah to the two rak^ahs of the obligatory Dawn Prayer.
  • (Renouncing the legitimacy of what is by consensus and all Muslims know is legitimate) such as the recommended sunnahs associated with the Obligatory Prayers “rawatib” and the Witr Prayer.
  • (Intending to blaspheme in the future) such as intending to blaspheme the next day, or in a month, or in a year.  The one who intends to blaspheme in the future blasphemes immediately.
  • (Intending to do any of the aforementioned) blasphemous matters.
  • (Hesitating whether or not to blaspheme), such as questioning in his heart, “Should I or should I not blaspheme?”  By hesitating whether or not to blaspheme, one blasphemes immediately.  (But not the mere involuntary thought of it), for the involuntary thought of blaspheming does not invalidate one’s faith.  For example, one believes with certainty that Allah exists; yet, at one point in time, an involuntary thought occurs to him that renounces the existence of Allah. This person does not blaspheme because that involuntary thought does not rescind the certainty of his belief.
  • (Denying the companionship of our master Abu Bakr, may Allah raise his rank) because this entails belying the Qur’an in which his companionship is stated explicitly.
  • (Denying the Message of whomever is recognized by all Muslims as a messenger or a prophet;) such as Adam, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad, peace be upon them, and may Allah raise their ranks.
  • (Renouncing, out of stubbornness, a letter of the Qur’an which is of it by consensus), i.e., renouncing it while knowing that it is a letter of the Qur’an.
  • (Adding, out of stubbornness, a letter to the Qur’an which is by consensus not of it), i.e., it is blasphemous to add a letter to the Qur’an while knowing that it is not a part of it.  On the other hand, one is not deemed a blasphemer for adding a letter to the Qur’an while believing, out of ignorance, it is a part of the Qur’an.
  • (Belying a messenger or ascribing a non-befitting attribute to him).
  • (Making a messenger’s name diminutive) such as calling Prophet Musa, (Moses) “Muwaysa,” which means little Musa (with the purpose of degrading), insulting, or demeaning (him).
  • (Believing in the possibility of the prophethood of someone after our Prophet Muhammad , sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam) by believing it is possible for the revelation of prophethood to be bestowed upon someone not already revealed as a prophet prior to Prophet Muhammad.


[1] His biography was mentioned earlier.

[2] Even if he was a newly embraced Muslim, qareeba ^ahdin bi Islam.