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Among the sins of the tongue are: PDF Print Email
Written by Administrator   
Saturday, 04 July 2015 09:14

Among the sins of the tongue are:

1. (To commit gossip-ghibah) i.e., to mention, in the absence of a Muslim,) be him young or old, alive or dead, (a true matter about him that he hates to be mentioned;) that he would hate to be said about him if he heard, whether such a matter was related to his body, lineage, appearance, or other than that. On the other hand, mentioning fabricated matters about a Muslim is worse than gossip, and such an act is called “gossip-buhtan”, we seek refuge with Allah from it.


2. (Talebearing- namimah among Muslims)
i.e. to convey what one said about another between the two (to stir up trouble among them;) like to go to Yusuf  and tell him Abdullah said such and such about you.” Then to go Abdullah and tell him, Yusuf said such and such about you,” with the purpose of stirring up trouble between the two.


3. (Stirring up trouble)
by instigating one of two people to do an unlawful matter to cause tribulations between the two, even if that was (without passing words among others) rather by using a hand gesture for example, such a matter is impermissible (-even if it is goading animals to fight each other (tahrish);) like what some ignorant people do among inciting animals to fight one another, like doing so between two dogs, two turkeys, or two rams; contrary to doing so between two pigs for it is not unlawful.


4. (To lie, i.e., to say what is)
to convey/report a matter (different from the truth;) with knowledge that such said matter is not the truth, whether done in seriousness or jest.


5. (To commit perjury, i.e., to solemnly swear) by the name of Allah or by one of His attributes (to) something which is (a lie;)


6. (To say Qadhf-words which attribute adultery-zina or fornication-zina)
or the like, (to a person or to one of his relatives) like one’s mother or one’s sister. Such statements are stated (either explicitly) by attributing such an act to said person, like to say, “Such a person is a fornicator or a sodomizer.” Such a statement is considered explicit (absolute without restriction) i.e. whether the speaker intended to attribute the person with fornication or sodomy or not; (or) such statements are stated (implicitly) i.e. the uttered statement contains more than one meaning. One of its meanings implies accusing another with fornication and another does not. Hence such a statement would not be considered accusing one of fornication unless the speaker said it (with that intention;) i.e. with the intention of attributing the intended  person with fornication. Like to say “You are a vile person,” or “o you enormous sinner ,” with the intention of saying Qadhf-words about the addressed person; The punishment for he who is free is eighty lashes; the slave receives one-half of that;) punishment, i.e. forty lashes.


7. (To cuss)
all of (the Companions;) is blasphemy. However, to curse one of them, like Abu Bakr or Umar, is an enormous sin. Moreover, saying Mu^awiyah and his group were unjust is not considered cussing the companions, because such a statement was narrated to be among the sayings of the Prophet, salallahu ^alayhi wa salam, in the mutawair hadith, “Congratulations to ^Ammar, the unjust group will kill him.” as narrated by alBukharriyy[1].


8. (To give false testimony;)
i.e. to testify about something while lying. Doing so is an enormous sin.

9. (To procrastinate paying one's debt when it is due) to delay paying one’s debt after the loaner asked for it to be repaid; (and one is liquid i.e. able;) to pay the debt.

 

10. (To cuss,) a Muslim, i.e. to slander him unrightfully; and to (damn,) a Muslim, like to say to him, “May Allah damn you.” To be dammed is to be far from the good. Also among the sins of the tongue is to (mock,) a Muslim, i.e. to degrade him; (or utter what harms a Muslim;) when said to him, unrightfully.

11. (To lie about Allah and) to lie about (His Messenger;) sallahu ^alayhi wa salam. Doing so is in some cases blasphemy, we seek refuge with Allah from that, like to attribute to Allah or to His Messenger, sallahu ^alayhi wa salam, the forbidding of a matter which he knows to be lawful. 

12. (To make a false claim;) like for one to claim a right over someone, which is truly not his, as in relying on a false testimony for example.

13. (To divorce one's wife) i.e. for a husband to divorce his wife (while she is menstruating or) for the divorce to occur (during a period of purity-tuhr) in which he had sexual intercourse with her) i.e. with his wife; such a divorce is called a divorce- bid^iyy

14. (To utter the dhihar, like) for the man, (to say to one's wife:) his wife, a statement which when literally mentioned translates as, “You are to me as my mother’s back,” or stomach or hand, meaning: ("You are for me like my mother,” meaning: I now do not copulate with you, just as I do not copulate with my mother.") saying such a statement is an enormous sin, due to the hurtfulness it causes the wife. (If one does not divorce immediately after uttering this,) statement of dhihar, (one) the husband, (is obliged to fulfill an expiation-kaffarah) which is to free a Muslim slave) male or female, (who has no defects;) which evidently impact the slave’s earning and ability to work; (if unable,) to free such a slave, he is obligated (to fast two consecutive lunar months;) and the consecutive manner of fasting the two months is interrupted by not fasting even one day; (and if unable,) if one was also unable to fast the two lunar months, he is obligated (to feed sixty needyMuslims) or poor Muslims, (sixty mudds.) each needy or poor person receives one mudd of that which is valid to be paid as the Zakah of alFitr.


15. (To commit mistakes)
i.e. to improperly read (when reciting the Qur'an, whether those mistakes change the meaning or not;) i.e. whether the mistakes committed change the meaning or change the inflection- i^rab without changing the meaning, doing so is prohibited. Moreover, every Muslim is obligated to recite the Fatihah in the prayer with a valid recitation.


16. (For the one who is solvent)
i.e. for the sustained person, (via wealth) such that one owns what fulfills his basic needs, (or) he was able to acquire his basic needs through a lawful form of (work) i.e. if one was solvent by one of those two ways, by wealth or by the ability to seek his needs through a lawful work, he is prohibited ( to beg;)


17. (To utter a vow-nadhr) with the purpose of depriving the inheritor;)
from the inheritance. Moreover, such a vow is invalid.


18. (To neglect leaving a will which states one’s debts)
such that one does not inform anyone about his debts which he is obligated to repay another; (or) and he does not inform anyone about the (trusts for others) i.e. the entities of others placed in his care by way of an entrusted-wadi^ah safe kept item or the like, if one feared the loss of the debt or the entities/trusts upon his death, caused for example by a fatal illness with which he was inflicted; (about which), due to the fact that (no one other than oneself knows;) about those matters. However if another person among the people whose testimony is accepted and by it the truth is affirmed by his testimony  had knowledge of these matters, and it was not feared that such a person would keep those matters hidden, like an inheritor might do, then in such a case leaving a will is recommended[2] and not obligatory.


19. (To attribute oneself)
i.e. for a child to attribute himself (to other than one's own father or) for the freed slave to attribute himself through false testimony to other than his (liberator,) who freed him.


20. (To propose to a woman after she is already engaged to another Muslim;)
i.e. for a man to propose to woman who was previously proposed to by another Muslim man who was accepted by whomever’s acceptance is considered, without the permission of the first fiancé or before the engagement is breached.


21. (To give an Islamic legal judgment (edict-fatwa) without knowledge;)
about the topic matter.

22. (To teach) i.e. to teach others, (or to seek) i.e. for one to learn any (harmful knowledge) i.e. that which is Islamically considered harmful, like witchcraft and sorcery (without an Islamically valid reason;) i.e.that makes that permissible.


23. (To judge by other than the Law of Allah;)
and the rules He revealed to His Messenger, sallallahu ^alayhi wa salam. Furthermore, it is blasphemy if one did so while denying the Law of Allah, or preferring another law over it, or deeming it equal with other laws in status; we seek refuge with Allah from that. Otherwise, just judging by other than the Law of Allah alone, without coupling it with one of the above, is an enormous sin.


24. (To wail and lament the good attributes of the deceased as if heis hearing)
wailing-nadb means to express grief in words uttered loudly in a mournful way while mentioning the good attributes of the deceased as if talking to him, like to say “O you who was like a shelter for us” or “O you who was a like a mountain” or “O you, my support”. As for lamenting-niyahah, it is to scream voluntarily in a way that expresses grief, panic, and impatience over the calamity of death.

25. To utter words which encourage one to do the unlawful) like for one to say to another, “Hit Yusuf,” or “Kill him unrightfully”, (or discourage one from doing the obligatory;) like to say, “Do not pray now, make up the prayer later at your house after its time is out”.


26. (To utter words which defame Islam,)
or degrade the religion and insult it, like the saying of some -we seek refuge with Allah from this blasphemy- “Learning the religion causes one to become overly complicated”, or uttering that which defames (any prophets,) like what some say about Prophet Yusuf ^alayhis salam, “He firmly intended to commit fornication.” We seek refuge with Allah from such statements. Or to utter words which defame the (the scholars,) like the saying of some that the scholars complicated the religion, or to utter what which defames (the Qur'an,) like the one who belies anything revealed in the Qur’an; (or) to utter any words which defame (any of the rites of) the religion of (Allah;) like prayer, Zakah, the call to prayer, ablution, and the like.


27. (To play the flute;)
i.e. to blow in the flute.


28. (To refrain from commanding the lawful-ma^ruf and from forbidding the unlawful- munkar without an excuse;)
such that one was able to do so; such that his safety, his money, and the like were ensured, and he did not do so. However, if one believed that forbidding the unlawful with his hand or his tongue would lead to a greater unlawful matter then in such a case one refrains from forbidding that unlawful matter with his hand or with his tongue, rather he hates that matter in his heart.


29. (To withhold the Obligatory Knowledge)
that one is personally obligated to teach, (from the one who requests it;) i.e. that knowledge.


30. (To laugh)
at a Muslim, (because a Muslim passed gas or to laugh at a Muslim to degrade him;) due to the fact that such Muslim had a lower status than him, or the like.


31. (To withhold testimony;)
without an excuse after one was summoned to testify.

32. (To neglect the obligatory returning [wa ^alaykumus-salam] of the Islamic salutation [as-salamu ^alaykum];) i.e. to neglect returning the Islamic salutation which one is obligated to return; like if an accountable Muslim saluted a specific Muslim of the same gender, in such a case it is an obligation on the other to return the salutation.

33. (To give an arousing kiss intentionally when one is in the state of pilgrimage-ihram for Hajj or ^Umrah,) whether the pilgrim feared ejaculation or not, he is prohibited from giving a kiss with desire while he is in the state of pilgrimage; (or) and giving an arousing kiss is unlawful for the one who (is fasting an obligatory fast) during Ramadan, or to fulfill a vow, or to fulfill/pay an expiation, (if one feared ejaculation;) i.e. if he feared emitting maniyy because of the kiss.


34. (To kiss those whom one is not allowed to kiss.)
like a marriageable woman-ajnabiyyah.




[1] In Sahih alBukhariyy, in the Book  of Prayer, Chapter: collaborating to build the Mosque.

[2] Some of those who explained Minhajut-Talibin said: “It is –i.e. the will– a confirmed recommended matter by consensus.” They said, “So one should not neglect the will even for a short period as was explicified via the sahih hadith in which the Prophet sallallahu ^alayhi wa salam said: “Every Muslim who has anything about which a will is to be made, ought not wait a night or two consecutive nights without having prepared his written will.” i.e. this is the only thing religiously known for one to do because the person does not know when death will surprise him.”